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Ecosystems and their components

An ecosystem describes a specific area where the organisms work together as a unit. It could be any size from a tiny pool of water to hundreds of square miles of desert.
A biome is way to describe a large group of similar ecosystems. Biomes have similar weather, rainfall, animals, and plants.


Ecosystems maintain important balances in order that all the organisms within the ecosystem can survive. These balances involve food, water, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon. The sun provides the energy needed by ecosystems. Plants take this energy and use photosynthesis to create sugar which they can use for energy. Nutrients in the soil, the air, and water also play a part in keeping an ecosystem thriving and in balance. 
Humans have affected many ecosystems and biomes throughout the world. Cutting down trees, developing land, growing crops, burning fossil fuels, overfishing, and overhunting are just some of the ways that we have affected the balance of nature. 



There are two major aquatic or water biomes, the marine biome and the freshwater biome. The marine biome is primarily made up of the saltwater oceans. It is the largest biome on planet Earth and covers around 70% of the Earth's surface.


The freshwater biome is defined as having a low salt content versus the marine biome which is saltwater like the ocean. 
There are three main types of freshwater biomes: ponds and lakes, streams and rivers, and wetlands. 


Click HERE to know about the Great Barrier Reef


Animals and plants have features that allow them to adapt to their environment. The organisms in a community compete with each other for limited resources, including water and space. Plants also compete with each other for light and minerals.

For example, a pond ecosystem consists of a pond habitat, inhabited by aquatic plants, waterside plants, micro-organisms, minnows and herons. The organisms together make up a community of living things.

Habitats have limited amounts of the resources needed by living organisms. Organisms can only survive if they can get enough resources. They must compete with other organisms for these resources. If they are unsuccessful and cannot move to another habitat, they will die.


Some of the resources that animals compete for:
  •          food
  •         water
  •         space

Animals may also compete for mates so that they can reproduce.

Remember that plants make their own food using photosynthesis, so they do not compete for food. Some of the things that plants do compete for are:
  •         light
  •         water
  •         space

Life in the heights

Tropical rainforests cover only 6 % of the Earth's surface but yet they contain MORE THAN 1/2 of the world's plant and animal species! Tropical forests contain more species than any other ecosystem, and a higher proportion of unique species. As people cut off large areas of tropical plants and trees, entire species are vanishing forever. 

Living Things Classification

Biological classification works a bit like the library does. Inside the library, books are divided up into certain areas: mistery, science fiction, adventure, drama, comedy... Within each of those sections, there will be more divisions like fiction, non-fiction…

Biological classification works the same way. At the top there are the kingdoms. The kingdoms divide up life into big groups like plants and animals. Under the kingdoms are more divisions until, finally, you get to the species, which is like getting to the book you are searching in the library. 

There are seven levels of classification: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species. The two main kingdoms we think about are plants and animals.

Here is an example of how humans are classified:

Kingdom: Animalia 
Phylum: Chordata 
Class: Mammalia 
Order: Primates 
Family: Hominidae 
Genus: Homo 
Species: Homo sapiens

Food Chains

All living things need food to give them the energy to grow and move. A food chain shows how each living thing gets its food. It shows who is eating who. The arrow means "is eaten by" . 


Animals and plants are made of cells. Cells form the basic "building blocks" for living things. 

Cells are very small. They are the basic building blocks of all animals and plants. This photograph shows cells seen through a microscope:

World Climates. Climate of Spain

Weather and climate are different.  Weather is a short change of the air in an area measured by temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind, and other factors. Climate is usually defined as the weather conditions in an area over a long period of time.

Rivers and Mountains of Spain

A trip through the main rivers and also the tallest mountains in Spain: 


How the brain works

The brain is the most fascinating part of the human body. Not much to look at, it resembles a spongy mass of tissue, feels like toffe and weighs roughly four taps of butter. A brain is actually made up of mostly water and about ten per cent fats. Well, our brain only makes up approximately the two per cent of the entire body weight. It uses a massive twenty per cent of the body's energy.

The brain's basic building blocks are known as neurons and we have around one hundred billion of these, each with between one thousand to ten thousand conexions to other neurons, creating neuropathways or roads within the brain. There are literally trillions of neuroconexions within the brain. Similar to a city's electrical power grid, information is passed along these roads through a series of chemical messages and electrical impulses.

As all of this activity takes place, our brain generates between ten to twenty five watts of power, enough to par a lightbulb. Over the course of one day, your brain generates more electrical impulses from faring neurons than all of the telephones in the world. So really, your brain isn't just a spongy mass of tissue, it's your most complex organ, a power station that connects you every thought, movement or feeling. And it's faring right now.


Our body needs food to provide it with energy, vitamins, and minerals. However, in order use food, we must first break it down into substances that the various organs and cells in our body can use. This is the job of our digestive system.


The human respiratory system contains the organs that allow us to get the oxygen we need and to remove the waste carbon dioxide we don't need. It contains these parts: